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03/2021 journal articles

IDENTIFYING BIOMARKERS FOR BIOLOGICAL AGE: GEROSCIENCE AND THE ICFSR TASK FORCE

N.K. LeBrasseur, R. de Cabo, R. Fielding, L. Ferrucci, L. Rodriguez-Manas, J. Viña, B. Vellas

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)196-201

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The International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research Task Force met in March 2020, in the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemic, to discuss strategies for advancing the interdisciplinary field of geroscience. Geroscience explores biological mechanisms of aging as targets for intervention that may delay the physiological consequences of aging, maintain function, and prevent frailty and disability. Priorities for clinical practice and research include identifying and validating a range of biomarkers of the hallmarks of aging. Potential biomarkers discussed included markers of mitochondrial dysfunction, proteostasis, stem cell dysfunction, nutrient sensing, genomic instability, telomere dysfunction, cellular senescence, and epigenetic changes. The FRAILOMICS initiative is exploring many of these through various omics studies. Translating this knowledge into new therapies is being addressed by the U.S. National Institute on Aging Translational Gerontology Branch. Research gaps identified by the Task Force include the need for improved cellular and animal models as well as more reliable and sensitive measures.

CITATION:
N.K. LeBrasseur ; R. de Cabo ; R. Fielding ; L. Ferrucci ; L. Rodriguez-Manas ; J. Viña ; B. Vellas (2021): Identifying Biomarkers for Biological Age: Geroscience and the ICFSR Task Force. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2021.5

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OBESITY MEASURES AND DEFINITIONS OF SARCOPENIC OBESITY IN SINGAPOREAN ADULTS – THE YISHUN STUDY

B.W.J. Pang, S.-L. Wee, L.K. Lau, K.A. Jabbar, W.T. Seah, D.H.M. Ng, Q.L.L. Tan, K.K. Chen, M.U. Jagadish T.P. Ng1,4

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)202-210

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Objectives: Due to the lack of a uniform obesity definition, there is marked variability in reported sarcopenic obesity (SO) prevalence and associated health outcomes. We compare the association of SO with physical function using current Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) guidelines and different obesity measures to propose the most optimal SO diagnostic formulation according to functional impairment, and describe SO prevalence among community-dwelling young and old adults. Design: Obesity was defined according to waist circumference (WC), percentage body fat (PBF), fat mass index (FMI), fat mass/fat-free mass ratio (FM/FFM), or body mass index (BMI). SO was defined as the presence of both obesity and AWGS sarcopenia. Muscle function was compared among phenotypes and obesity definitions using ANOVA. Differences across obesity measures were further ascertained using multiple linear regressions to determine their associations with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Setting: Community-dwelling adults 21 years old and above were recruited from a large urban residential town in Singapore. Participants: 535 community-dwelling Singaporeans were recruited (21-90 years old, 57.9% women), filling quotas of 20-40 participants in each sex- and age-group. Measurements: We took measurements of height, weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences, body fat, muscle mass, muscle strength, and functional assessments. Questionnaire-based physical and cognitive factors were also assessed. Results: Overall prevalence of SO was 7.6% (WC-based), 5.1% (PBF-based), 2.7% (FMI-based), 1.5% (FM/FFM-based), and 0.4% (BMI-based). SO was significantly associated with SPPB only in the FMI model (p<0.05), and total variance explained by the different regression models was highest for the FMI model. Conclusions: Our findings suggest FMI as the most preferred measure for obesity and support its use as a diagnostic criteria for SO.

CITATION:
B.W.J. Pang ; S.-L. Wee ; L.K. Lau ; K.A. Jabbar ; W.T. Seah ; D.H.M. Ng ; Q.L.L. Tan ; K.K. Chen ; M.U. Jagadish ; T.P. Ng (2020): Obesity Measures and Definitions of Sarcopenic Obesity in Singaporean Adults – the Yishun Study. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.65

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TRENDS IN THE PREVALENCE OF FRAILTY IN JAPAN: A META-ANALYSIS FROM THE ILSA-J

H. MAKIZAKO, Y. NISHITA, S. JEONG, R. OTSUKA, H. SHIMADA, K. IIJIMA, S. OBUCHI, H. KIM, A. KITAMURA, Y. OHARA, S. AWATA, N. YOSHIMURA, M. YAMADA, K. TOBA, T. SUZUKI

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)211-218

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Objective: To examine whether age-specific prevalence of frailty in Japan changed between 2012 and 2017. Design: This study performed meta-analyses of data collected from 2012 to 2017 using the Integrated Longitudinal Studies on Aging in Japan (ILSA-J), a collection of representative Japanese cohort studies. Setting: The ILSA-J studies were conducted on community-living older adults. Participants: ILSA-J studies were considered eligible for analysis if they assessed physical frailty status and presence of frailty in the sample. Seven studies were analyzed for 2012 (±1 year; n = 10312) and eight studies were analyzed for 2017 (±1 year; n = 7010). Five studies were analyzed for both 2012 and 2017. Measurements: The study assessed the prevalence of frailty and frailty status according to 5 criteria: slowness, weakness, low activity, exhaustion, and weight loss.Results: The overall prevalence of physical frailty was 7.0% in 2012 and 5.3% in 2017. The prevalence of frailty, especially in people 70 years and older, tended to decrease in 2017 compared to 2012. Slight decreases were found in the prevalence of frailty subitems including weight loss, slowness, exhaustion, and low activity between 2012 and 2017, but change in the prevalence of weakness was weaker than other components. Conclusions: The prevalence of physical frailty decreased from 2012 to 2017. There are age- and gender-related variations in the decrease of each component of frailty.

CITATION:
H. MAKIZAKO ; Y. NISHITA ; S. JEONG ; R. OTSUKA ; H. SHIMADA ; K. IIJIMA ; S. OBUCHI ; H. KIM ; A. KITAMURA ; Y. OHARA ; S. AWATA ; N. YOSHIMURA ; M. YAMADA ; K. TOBA ; T. SUZUKI (2020): TRENDS IN THE PREVALENCE OF FRAILTY IN JAPAN: A META-ANALYSIS FROM THE ILSA-J. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.68

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MUSCLE LOSS IS ASSOCIATED WITH RISK OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION IN OLDER MEN AND WOMEN

M.J. Benton, A.L. Silva-Smith, J.M. Spicher

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)219-225

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Background: Muscle provides a reservoir for water to maintain fluid volume and blood pressure, so older adults may be at risk for orthostatic hypotension due to muscle loss with age. Objectives: To evaluate the association between muscle loss with age and postural blood pressure. Design: Longitudinal comparison of overnight changes in hydration, postural blood pressure, and strength. Setting: Community field study. Participants: Sixty-nine men and women (76.0 ± 0.8 years) with low (Low) or normal (Normal) muscle based on the Lean Mass Index. Measurements: Body composition was measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Postural blood pressure was measured sequentially (lying, sitting, standing). Strength was measured with a handgrip dynamometer, Arm Curl test, and Chair Stand test. Results: On Day 1, Low had less hydration and a significant drop in postural systolic blood pressure compared to Normal (lying to standing: -11.06 ± 2.36 vs. +1.14 ± 2.20 mmHg, p < 0.001). Overnight, both groups lost significant total body water, while fluid volume was unchanged. On Day 2, both groups experienced significant drops in postural systolic blood pressure, although the drop in Low was more profound and significantly greater than Normal (lying to standing: -16.85 ± 2.50 vs. -3.89 ± 2.52 mmHg, p = 0.001). On both days, Normal compensated for postural changes with increases in postural diastolic blood pressure not observed in Low. Only Low experienced significant overnight decreases in all strength measures. Conclusions: In older men and women, muscle loss with age is accompanied by loss of hydration and less stable early morning postural systolic blood pressure that increase risk for orthostatic hypotension and can also increase risk for falls.

CITATION:
M.J. Benton ; A.L. Silva-Smith ; J.M. Spicher (2020): Muscle Loss is Associated with Risk of Orthostatic Hypotension in Older Men and Women. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.72

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SARCOPENIA IN PRIMARY CARE: SCREENING, DIAGNOSIS, MANAGEMENT

S. Crosignani, C. Sedini, R. Calvani, E. Marzetti, M. Cesari

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)226-232

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Detection of sarcopenia in primary care is a first and essential step in community-dwelling older adults before implementing preventive interventions against the onset of disabling conditions. In fact, leaving this condition undiagnosed and untreated can impact on the individual’s quality of life and function, as well as on healthcare costs. This article summarizes the many instruments today available for promoting an earlier and prompter detection of sarcopenia in primary care, combining insights about its clinical management. Primary care physicians may indeed play a crucial role in the identification of individuals exposed to the risk of sarcopenia or already presenting this condition. To confirm the suspected diagnosis, several possible techniques may be advocated, but it is important that strategies are specifically calibrated to the needs, priorities and resources of the setting where the evaluation is conducted. To tackle sarcopenia, nutritional counselling and physical activity programs are today the two main interventions to be proposed. Multicomponent and personalized exercise programs can (and should) be prescribed by primary care physicians, taking advantage of validated programs ad hoc designed for this purpose (e.g., the Vivifrail protocol). It is possible that, in the next future, new pharmacological treatments may become available for tackling the skeletal muscle decline. These will probably find application in those individuals non-responding to lifestyle interventions.

CITATION:
S. Crosignani ; C. Sedini ; R. Calvani ; E. Marzetti ; M. Cesari (2020): SARCOPENIA IN PRIMARY CARE: SCREENING, DIAGNOSIS, MANAGEMENT. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.63

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FRAILTY IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED MORTALITY IN OLDER ADULTS 12 MONTHS AFTER DISCHARGE FROM POST-ACUTE CARE IN SWISS NURSING HOMES

C. Fompeyrine, L.A. Abderhalden, N. Mantegazza, N. Hofstetter, G. Bieri-Brüning, H.A. Bischoff-Ferrari, M. Gagesch

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)233-236

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Frail older adults with ongoing care needs often require post-acute care (PAC) following acute hospitalization when not eligible for specific rehabilitation. Long-term outcomes of PAC in this patient group have not been reported for Switzerland so far. In the present report, we investigated 12-month mortality in regard to frailty status upon admission to PAC in a nursing home setting. In our sample of 140 patients (mean age 84 [±8.6] years) 4.3% were robust, 37.1% were pre-frail, 54.3% were frail and 4.3% were missing frailty status. Mortality at 12-months follow-up stratified by baseline frailty was 0% (robust), 11.5% (pre-frail) and 31.6% (frail). Kaplan-Meier analysis stratified by frailty status showed a decreased probability of 12-months survival for frail individuals compared to their pre-frail and robust counterparts (P = 0.0096). Being frail was associated with more than 4-fold increased odds of death at follow-up (OR 4.19; 95% CI 1.53-11.47).

CITATION:
C. Fompeyrine ; L.A. Abderhalden ; N. Mantegazza ; N. Hofstetter ; G. Bieri-Brüning ; H.A. Bischoff-Ferrari ; M. Gagesch ; (2020): Frailty is associated with increased mortality in older adults 12 months after discharge from post-acute care in Swiss nursing homes. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.58

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERUM FATTY ACIDS AND COMPONENTS OF PHYSICAL FRAILTY IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING JAPANESE OLDER ADULTS

K. Kinoshita, R. Otsuka, C. Tange, Y. Nishita, M. Tomida, F. Ando, H. Shimokata, H. Arai

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)237-240

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Polyunsaturated fatty acids help maintain insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial function, and anti-inflammation. It is well known that deterioration in these areas can cause frailty. However, little is known about the differences in serum polyunsaturated fatty acid levels among frailty components. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between frailty and serum fatty acids in 1,033 community-dwelling older adults aged 60–88 years. Polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples. The modified phenotype criteria defined frailty. Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were compared among each component using general linear modeling after controlling for sex, age, body mass index, smoking status, household income, and medical history. Lower polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were associated with the modified frailty criteria, including shrinking and weakness (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that serum polyunsaturated fatty acid levels differ depending on the frailty status of older adults.

CITATION:
K. Kinoshita ; R. Otsuka ; C. Tange ; Y. Nishita ; M. Tomida ; F. Ando ; H. Shimokata ; H. Arai (2020): Relationship between Serum Fatty Acids and Components of Physical Frailty in Community-Dwelling Japanese Older Adults. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.67

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A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE BASE FOR NUTRITION AND NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS IN OLDER ADULTS WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER: A REPORT FROM THE OABD TASK FORCE

A.T. Olagunju, J.A. Morgan, A. Aftab, J.R. Gatchel, P. Chen, A. Dols, M. Sajatovic, W.T. Regenold

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)241-246

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Objectives: To better understand the role of nutrition in older adults (aged 50 years or older) with bipolar disorders (OABD), we conducted a systematic review of the literature and appraise existing evidence. Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched databases including Medline/PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Register, FDA website, and clinical trial registries through 2019 for eligible reports. The search string combined MeSH terms for bipolar disorder, nutrition and older adults. This was supplemented by snowball searching of references in relevant studies and authors were contacted to request their work where necessary. All included studies were rated with the National Institutes of Health Study Quality Assessment Tools based on study designs. Results: Of 2280 papers screened, ten studies including eight observational and two interventional studies. The topic foci of the papers examined several nutrients, (including vitamin B12, vitamin D, coenzyme Q10, homocysteine, and folate), nutritional deficiencies and biochemical correlates. The prevalence rates of deficiencies varied with specific nutrients (3.7% to 71.6% for Vitamin B12 and 34.6% for Vitamin D), and between inpatient versus outpatient populations. While nutritional interventions appeared to be associated with improvement in both affective and cognitive outcomes, the sample sizes of OABD varied and were generally small. Conclusion: While there is evidence for the benefits of nutritional interventions on affective, cognitive and overall outcome in OABD, the quality of the evidence is limited. Our findings underscore the need for high quality studies to inform evidence-based guidelines for nutritional assessment and supplemention in OABD.

CITATION:
A.T. Olagunju ; J.A. Morgan ; A. Aftab ; J.R. Gatchel ; P. Chen ; A. Dols ; M. Sajatovic ; W.T. Regenold (2020): A Review of the Evidence Base for Nutrition and Nutritional Supplements in Older Adults with Bipolar Disorder: A report from the OABD task force. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.64

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MULTICOMPONENT EXERCISE PROGRAM IN OLDER ADULTS WITH LUNG CANCER DURING ADJUVANT/PALLIATIVE TREATMENT: A SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF AN INTERVENTION STUDY

N. Martínez-Velilla, M.L. Saez de Asteasu, R. Ramírez-Vélez, I.D. Rosero, A. Cedeño-Veloz, I. Morilla, R.V. García, F. Zambom-Ferraresi, A. García-Hermoso, M. Izquierdo

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)241-246

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Background: Lung cancer is the second most prevalent common cancer in the world and predominantly affects older adults. This study aimed to examine the impact of an exercise programme in the use of health resources in older adults and to assess their changes in frailty status. Design: This is a secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study with a non-randomized control group. Setting: Oncogeriatrics Unit of the Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Spain. Participants: Newly diagnosed patients with NSCLC stage I–IV. Intervention: Multicomponent exercise programme that combined resistance, endurance, balance and flexibility exercises. Each session lasted 45–50 minutes, and the exercise protocol was performed twice a week over 10 weeks. Measurements: Mortality, readmissions and Visits to the Emergency Department. Change in frailty status according to Fried, VES-13 and G-8 scales. Results: 26 patients completed the 10-weeks intervention (IG). Mean age in the control group (CG) was 74.5 (3.6 SD) vs 79 (3 SD) in the IG, and 78,9% were male in the IG vs 71,4% in the CG. No major adverse events or health-related issues attributable to the testing or training sessions were noted. Significant between-group differences were obtained on visits to the emergency department during the year post-intervention (4 vs 1; p:0.034). No differences were found in mortality rate and readmissions, where an increasing trend was observed in the CG compared with the IG in the latter (2 vs 0; p 0.092). Fried scale was the unique indicator that seemed to be able to detect changes in frailty status after the intervention. Conclusions: A multicomponent exercise training programme seems to reduce the number of visits to the emergency department at one-year post-intervention in older adults with NSCLC during adjuvant therapy or palliative treatment, and is able to modify the frailty status when measured with the Fried scale.

CITATION:
N. Martínez-Velilla ; M.L. Saez de Asteasu ; R. Ramírez-Vélez ; I.D. Rosero ; A. Cedeño-Veloz ; I. Morilla ; R.V. García ; F. Zambom-Ferraresi ; A. García-Hermoso ; M. Izquierdo (2021): Multicomponent exercise program in older adults with lung cancer during adjuvant/palliative treatment: A secondary analysis of an intervention study. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2021.2

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IMPACT OF SOCIAL FRAILTY ON RELOCATION OF OLDER ADULTS

S. Dupuis-Blanchard, C. Bigonnesse, M.K. Andrew, O. Gould, D. Maillet

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)254-258

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Background: The relationship between frailty and variables such as housing are the least included in models of frailty and research on frailty or social frailty and relocation is negligible. The decision to relocate is complex and demanding for older adults with a loss of independence but little is known about what makes older adults relocate to congregated housing designated for older adults, let alone in combination with social frailty, and how they navigate this transition. Objectives: This mixed method descriptive study aims to understand the influence of social frailty for a population of French-speaking semi-independent older adults relocating to a housing continuum community. Design: Semi-structured individual interviews including sociodemographic data and the PRISMA-7 Frailty Scale were conducted with recently relocated older adults. Setting: A newly opened French-speaking housing continuum community in Eastern Canada that offers luxury apartments for independent older adults, two assisted living facilities for semi-independent older adults along with a long-term care facility. Participants: Twenty-nine older adults with a mean age of 85 years, mostly female, married or widowed and highly educated. Measurements: Content analysis of the transcribed recorded interviews and descriptive statistical analyses to examine relationships between the frailty PRISMA-7 scale, answers to additional questions and the sociodemographic data. Results: There was not a significant difference in the scores for socialization before and after relocation nor between prior help and current help; however, there was a significant negative correlation between help and socialization before and after relocation. Three main themes included: imposed influences, push and pull factors and post relocation. Conclusions: The results indicate that several social factors contributed to relocation and that participants were experiencing social frailty. Participants were at the crossover point of being vulnerable to experiencing additional deficits which would potentially have led to higher frailty had they not relocated.

CITATION:
S. Dupuis-Blanchard ; C. Bigonnesse ; M.K. Andrew ; O. Gould ; D. Maillet ; (2021): Impact of Social Frailty on Relocation of Older Adults. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2021.3

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A LITERATURE REVIEW OF HEALTHY AGING TRAJECTORIES THROUGH QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE STUDIES: A PSYCHO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPROACH ON COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER ADULTS

A. Zamudio-Rodríguez, J.-F. Dartigues, H. Amieva, K. Pérès

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)259-271

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The population of older adults over 60 years is growing faster than any other age group and will more than double between 2020 and 2050. This increase has led to clinical, public health, and policy interest in how to age “successfully”. Before the Rowe and Kahn’s model proposed thirty years ago, aging was seen as a process of losses associated with diseases and disability. However, since the emergence of this model, there has been a shift towards a more positive view, serving for promoting diverse medical or psychosocial models, and personal perspectives. Several technical terms of “success” (e.g. “successful aging”, “healthy aging”, “active aging”, “aging well”…) coexist and compete for the meaning of the concept in the absence of a consensual definition. Our literature review article aims to study discrepancies and similarities between the main technical terms through quantitative or qualitative studies. A literature review using PubMed, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, Psycarticles, Psychology, and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Cochrane database, and clinicaltrials.gov databases was conducted. A total of 1057 articles were found and finally, 43 papers were selected for full extraction. We identified several components in these definitions, which reveal considerable inconsistency. The results particularly suggest that lay personals perspectives could bridge the gap between biomedical and psychosocial models in successful aging. In conclusion, an optimal definition would be a multidimensional one that could combine functional capacities, psychosocial abilities, environmental factors and subjective assessments of one’s own criteria to discriminate older adults at potential risk of “unsuccessful” aging to healthy aging trajectories.

CITATION:
A. Zamudio-Rodríguez ; J.-F. Dartigues ; H. Amieva ; K. Pérès (2020): A Literature Review of Healthy Aging Trajectories through Quantitative and Qualitative Studies: A Psycho-epidemiological Approach on Community-dwelling Older Adults. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.62

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FRAILTY, SARCOPENIA AND LONG TERM CARE UTILIZATION IN OLDER POPULATIONS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Q. Roquebert , J. Sicsic, B. Santos-Eggimann , N. Sirven, T. Rapp

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)272-280

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This systematic literature review documents the link between frailty or sarcopenia, conceptualized as dimensions of physical health, and the use of long-term care services by older individuals. Long-term care services include formal and informal care provided at home as well as in institutions. A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA requirements using the following databases: PubMed-Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Academic Search Premier. We included all quantitative studies published in English between January 2000 and December 2018 focusing on individuals aged 50 or more, using a relevant measurement of sarcopenia or physical frailty and a long-term care related outcome. A quality assessment was carried out using the questionnaire established by the Good Practice Task Force Report of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Five subsets of long-term care outcome were considered: 1/ nursing home placement (NHP), 2/ nursing home short stay (NHSS), 3/ formal personal care (FPC), 4/ formal home help (FHH), 5/ informal care (IC). Out of 1943 studies, 17 were finally included in the review. With some studies covering several LTC outcomes, frailty and / or sarcopenia were associated with increased LTC use in 17 out of 26 cases (NHP: 5/6, NHSS: 3/4, FPC: 5/7, FHH: 1/4, IC: 3/5) The association was not consistent in 5 cases (NHP: 1/6, NHSS: 1/4, FPC: 2/7, FHH: 0/4, IC: 1/5) and the association was either not significant or the results inconclusive in the remaining 9 cases. Overall, while results on sarcopenia are scarce, evidence support a positive association between frailty and LTC use. The evidence is stronger for the association of physical frailty with nursing home placement / short stay as well as on FPC. There is less (more heterogeneous) evidence regarding the correlation between physical frailty and FHH or IC use. Results need to be confirmed by more advanced statistical methods or design based on longitudinal data.

CITATION:
Q. Roquebert ; J. Sicsic ; B. Santos-Eggimann ; N. Sirven ; T. Rapp (2021): FRAILTY, SARCOPENIA AND LONG TERM CARE UTILIZATION IN OLDER POPULATIONS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2021.7

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INFLAMMATION AT THE CROSSROADS: THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF COVID-19, AGEING, AND AIR POLLUTION

P.J. Martin, S. Billet, Y. Landkocz, B. Fougère

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)281-285

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The global COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted different vulnerability profiles among individuals. With the highest mortality rate, the elderly are a very sensitive group. With regard to the main symptoms, a failure of the respiratory system, associated with deregulation of the immune system, has been observed. These symptoms may also be encountered in chronic exposure of susceptible populations to air pollution, including exacerbation of the inflammatory response. Is there a relationship between age, pollution exposure and the severity of COVID-19? Although it is unclear how these parameters are related, the same pathways can be activated and appear to find a common mechanism of action in inflammation.

CITATION:
P.J. Martin ; S. Billet ; Y. Landkocz ; B. Fougère (2021): Inflammation at the Crossroads: the Combined Effects of COVID-19, Ageing, and Air Pollution. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2021.8

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HEALTH STATUS AND LIFESTYLE HABITS OF VULNERABLE, COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER PEOPLE DURING THE COVID-19 LOCKDOWN

M. Machón, M. Mateo-Abad, K. Vrotsou, I. Vergara

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)286-289

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This study evaluated the health status and lifestyle habits of vulnerable, community-dwelling older adults during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Spain. A telephone assessment was carried out in 38 individuals (71% women), with a Barthel index ≥85 who were frail or had a high risk of falls. Data were compared with those from an assessment performed 9 months earlier. In the latter part of the lockdown, a high percentage of the studied individuals showed difficulties in walking up 10 steps and reported sleep problems (66%) and pain (74%). On the other hand, participants were not anxious/depressed (71%) and the majority did not report loneliness (60%). Compared to the earlier assessment, we identified a decline in functional capacity and worsening of nutritional status, but an increase in family support. Efforts should be made to implement intervention programs seeking to avoid accelerated decline under the current pandemic situation, and especially during possible new lockdowns.

CITATION:
M. Machón ; M. Mateo-Abad ; K. Vrotsou ; I. Vergara (2021): HEALTH STATUS AND LIFESTYLE HABITS OF VULNERABLE, COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER PEOPLE DURING THE COVID-19 LOCKDOWN. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2021.12

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IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTEGRATED CARE OF OLDER PEOPLE (ICOPE) APP AND ICOPE MONITOR IN PRIMARY CARE: A STUDY PROTOCOL

D. Sanchez-Rodriguez, S. Piccard, N. Dardenne, D. Giet, C. Annweiler, S. Gillain

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)290-296

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Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched the term “intrinsic capacity”, defined as “the composite of all the physical and mental capacities of an individual”. Intrinsic capacity has a positive value towards healthy aging, and is constructed by five domains: cognition, vitality/nutrition, sensory, psychology, and mobility. ICOPE App and ICOPE Monitor are applications for the assessment (screening) of intrinsic capacity. Hypothesis: Intrinsic capacity assessed by the ICOPE Apps at baseline could be associated with the incidence of frailty, functional decline, and health outcomes during 1-year follow-up. Objectives: To assess the association between intrinsic capacity measured by the ICOPE Apps at baseline and the incidence of frailty in community-dwelling older adults during 1-year follow-up. Secondarily, to assess the association of intrinsic capacity and functional decline, mortality, pre-frailty, falls, institutionalization, and quality of life. Methods: Protocol for a cohort study of community-dwelling adults ≥65-year-old, with no other exclusion criteria than the inability to use the Apps or communicate by telephone/video-call for any reason (cognitive or limited access to telephone/video-call) OR being considered frail at baseline (defined as having a Rockwood’s clinical frailty scale, CFS score ≥4). Intrinsic capacity measured by the ICOPE Apps and CFS will be assessed at baseline, 4-, 8- and 12-month follow-up by telephone/video-call. Assuming a prevalence of frailty of 10.7%, and incidence of 13% (alpha-risk=0.05), 400 participants at 12-month end-point (relative precision=0.10) and 600 participants at baseline will be required. Results: Associations among the decrease in intrinsic capacity and higher risk of frailty, functional decline, and health adverse outcomes during 1-year follow-up are expected. Conclusions: ICOPE Apps might identify individuals at higher risk of frailty, functional decline, and health adverse outcomes. The implementation of the ICOPE Apps into clinical practice might help to deliver efficient person-centered care-plans, and benefit the healthcare systems.

CITATION:
D. Sanchez-Rodriguez ; S. Piccard ; N. Dardenne ; D. Giet ; C. Annweiler ; S. Gillain (2021): Implementation of the Integrated Care of Older People (ICOPE) App and ICOPE Monitor in Primary Care: A study protocol. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2021.22

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REHABILITATION IN ADULT POST-COVID-19 PATIENTS IN POST-ACUTE CARE WITH THERAPEUTIC EXERCISE

C. Udina, J. Ars, A. Morandi, J. Vilaró, C. Cáceres, M. Inzitari

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)297-300

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COVID-19 patients may experience disability related to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission or due to immobilization. We assessed pre-post impact on physical performance of multi-component therapeutic exercise for post-COVID-19 rehabilitation in a post-acute care facility. A 30-minute daily multicomponent therapeutic exercise intervention combined resistance, endurance and balance training. Outcomes: Short Physical Performance Battery; Barthel Index, ability to walk unassisted and single leg stance. Clinical, functional and cognitive variables were collected. We included 33 patients (66.2±12.8 years). All outcomes improved significantly in the global sample (p<0.01). Post-ICU patients, who were younger than No ICU ones, experienced greater improvement in SPPB (4.4±2.1 vs 2.5±1.7, p<0.01) and gait speed (0.4±0.2 vs 0.2±0.1 m/sec, p<0.01). In conclusion, adults surviving COVID-19 improved their functional status, including those who required ICU stay. Our results emphasize the need to establish innovative rehabilitative strategies to reduce the negative functional outcomes of COVID-19.

CITATION:
C. Udina ; J. Ars ; A. Morandi ; J. Vilaró ; C. Cáceres ; M. Inzitari (2021): Rehabilitation in adult post-COVID-19 patients in post-acute care with Therapeutic Exercise. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2021.1

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR: IT IS IMPORTANT TO EXAMINE PHYSICAL FUNCTIONING AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES DURING POST-HOSPITALIZATION COVID-19 RECOVERY

R. McGrath, P.J. Carson, D.A. Jurivich

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)301-302

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CITATION:
R. McGrath ; P.J. Carson ; D.A. Jurivich (2020): Letter to the editor: It is Important to Examine Physical Functioning and Inflammatory Responses During Post-Hospitalization COVID-19 Recovery . The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.73

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR: CAREFUL HAND FEEDING PROGRAM IN A GERIATRIC STEP-DOWN HOSPITAL IN HONG KONG – IS THIS FEASIBLE?

J.K.H. Luk, T.C. Chan, F.H.W. Chan

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(3)303-304

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CITATION:
J.K.H. Luk ; T.C. Chan ; F.H.W. Chan (2020): Letter to the editor: Careful hand feeding program in a geriatric step-down hospital in Hong Kong – is this feasible? . The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.50

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