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Instructions for authors


The average time interval for the initial review process, if it involves both editorial and peer reviews, is approximately 3 weeks. Occasionally, there are unavoidable delays, usually because of multiple reviews or several revisions on a manuscript. Decisions conveyed may be acceptance with or without revision, non-acceptance with encouragement to make revisions and resubmit; non-acceptance with encouragement to resubmit in another format (e.g., letter to the editor), or rejection.

The Journal of Frailty & Aging publishes Original Papers, Reviews, Brief Reports, Speicla Articles, Editorials, Letters to the Editor, and Book Reviews.

Brief Reports are research investigation or clinical experience reports whose findings are somewhat preliminary or a clinical study reporting on narrowly focused or limited findings. Description of complex clinical cases (with aspects of novelty and/or didactical purposes) may be presented in this format, too. Letters to the Editor should be brief commentaries on published articles in the Journal of Frailty & Aging proposing alternative interpretations, different data, and/or things to ponder.



All the articles exceeding 2 published pages of the journal will be charged 295 euros/342 US dollars per extra page.



Original Articles: Limit the manuscript to a maximum of 5,500 text words, 5 graphics (tables, figures, or appendices), and 60 references. A structured abstract is required (see under Abstract). However if the article exceeds 2 published pages of the journal, it will be charged 295 Euros/342 US$ per extra page.
Review Articles: Limit the manuscript to a maximum of 6,500 text words, 5 graphics (tables, figures, or appendices), and 120 references. A narrative abstract is required (see under Abstract). However if the article exceeds 2 published pages of the journal, it will be charged 295 Euros/342 US$ per extra page.
Brief Reports: Limited to 3,500 text words, 2 graphics (tables, figures, or appendices), and 30 references, plus a brief unstructured abstract up to 150 words (see under Abstract). However if the article exceeds 2 published pages of the journal, it will be charged 295 Euros/342 US$ per extra page.
Letters to the Editor: Limited to 800 text words, 1 graphic (tables, figures, or appendices), and 5 references. No abstract is required.
Editorials: These are generally invited by the Editor-in-Chief to discuss articles appearing in the journal or topics of special interest. Editorial commentaries should not exceed two printed pages. No abstract is required.
Book Reviews
: Limited to 800 text words, 1 graphic (tables, figures, or appendices), and 5 references. No abstract is required.
Special Articles: These papers are specifically invited by the Editor-in-Chief to a researcher or group of researchers with the aim of developing a specific theme of interest for the journal. A narrative abstract (see under Abstract) may be required according to the length of the contribution. The size of this type of contribution is decided ad hoc with the Editor-in-Chief.



Submission of manuscript text files in Microsoft Word is encouraged, but submission of manuscript files in electronic format is essential. Failure to comply with these aspects of submission may delay handling of the manuscript.

All clinical studies should include the following headings: INTRODUCTION, METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, FUNDING, REFERENCES, and GRAPHICS (tables, figures and/or appendices) in that order. Start each of these sections on a new page. Statistical methodology should be part of the METHODS section. Articles may need subheadings within some sections to clarify their content.

Do not use “NS” for nonsignificant values. Provide nonsignificant and significant P-values to no more than three places past the decimal. Use P values less than 0.001.  For percentages use no more than one place past the decimal. In referring to cases with 50 or fewer subjects, state number (“one of four” cases), rather than percentages (25%). For instruments or scales, indicate normal range in the table (footnote) or figure as well as in the text if reference is made to these in this section.


Title page

A title page should include the title of the manuscript, the author’s full name(s), and affiliations; corresponding authors must provide complete mailing address information, including: name, e-mail address, telephone, and fax numbers. A short running page headline not to exceed 40 letters and spaces should be placed at the foot of the title page.


Group Authorship

If authorship is attributed to a group (either solely or in addition to 1 or more individual authors), all members of the group must meet the full criteria and requirements for authorship. A group must designate at least 1 or more individuals as authors or members of a writing group who meet full authorship criteria and requirements and who will take responsibility for the group, in which case the other group members are not authors, but may be listed in an acknowledgment.



The Journal of Frailty & Aging requires that abstracts of manuscripts submitted for the Original papers and Brief Reports be structured conforming to guidelines published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (1998;280:23–24). See also Annals of Internal Medicine (1990;113:69–76).

For Original Papers, abstracts (maximim 300 words) should include the following headings: Background, Objectives, Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention (if any), Measurements, Results, and Conclusions. Specify the sample size. Emphasize clinical relevance in the abstract’s conclusion. Failure to adhere to this format will delay or unduly prolong the review process.
For Review Papers, a narrative abstract (maximum 250 words) is required.
For Brief Reports, a narrative abstract (maximum 150 words) is required.

Following the abstract conclusion, list 3 to 5 key words to be used for indexing.

Editorials, Letters to the Editor, and Book Reviews do not require an abstract.


Key Words

Authors should include 3 to 5 key words at the end of the abstract for all papers except Editorials, Letters to the Editor, and Book Reviews.



Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract and limit their use in the text.


Tables and Figures

Each table should be typed, double spaced, on a separate sheet. Number the tables consecutively using Arabic numbers and supply a brief title at the top for each. Legends and footnotes for the table are typed immediately below the table and should follow the sequence cited in the AMA Manual of Style: *, †, ‡, §, ||, {, #, **, ††, ‡‡, §§, ||||, {{, ##, ***…

Avoid overcrowding the tables and the excessive use of words. The format of tables should be in keeping with that normally used by the journal; in particular, vertical lines should not be drawn. Please be certain that the data given in tables are correct.

Figures should be submitted in TIF, EPS, PDF, or JPG formats at sufficient resolution to be clear, sharp images when reduced to print size. Please be aware that the requirements for online submission and for reproduction in the journal are different: (i) for online submission and peer review, please upload your figures either embedded in the word processing file or separately as low-resolution images (.jpg, .tif, .gif or.eps); (ii) for reproduction in the journal, you will be required at revised submission stages to supply high-resolution .tif files (1200 d.p.i. for line drawings and 300 d.p.i. for colour and half-tone artwork). We advise that you create your high-resolution images first as these can be easily converted into low-resolution images for online submission. For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to http://cpc.cadmus.com/da.



Citation. Reference citations in the text should be identified by numbers in parenthesis. Please always include DOIs as full DOI links in your reference list.
Reference list. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text.
Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. The entries in the list should be numbered consecutively. Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php

Journal article. List the names of all authors; when more than 6, list the first three followed by “et al”.
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, et al. Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 2009;105:731-738.

Book. South J, Blass B. The future of modern genomics. 2001. Blackwell, London

Book chapter. Brown B, Aaron M. The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. 2001. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257

Online document. Cartwright J. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. 2007. http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1. Accessed 26 June 2007

Dissertation. Trent JW. Experimental acute renal failure. 1975. Dissertation, University of California



Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled Funding. This should appear before the Acknowledgements section. Indicate the role of the sponsors in design and conduct of the study as well as the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the preparation of the manuscript; or in the review or approval of the manuscript. If the sponsors had no role, then state the following: The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the preparation of the manuscript; or in the review or approval of the manuscript.


Language editing

Particularly if English is not your first language, before submitting your manuscript you may wish to have it edited for correct usage of American English. This may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication.



Use or reproduction of materials from other sources (e.g., journal, book) must be accompanied by a statement or document from both author and publisher giving permission to the Journal of Frailty & Aging for reproduction.



All potential benefits in any form from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this manuscript or any of the authors must be acknowledged. For each source of funds, both the research funder and the grant number should be given. All authors must complete the Conflict of Interest Disclosure individually even if an author has no conflict of interest to disclose.
If all participating authors declare no conflict of interest, it is still required for each author to include a disclosure statement in the manuscript text. All forms must be completed as instructed from each author and there must be a disclosure statement included in the manuscript text for each author before the manuscript can be sent out for peer review.



Requests for permission to republish material previously printed in the Journal of Frailty & Aging in another journal should be directed to Carine Giry carine.giry@serdi-publisher.com



It is necessary to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in the act of publishing in the Journal of Frailty & Aging: the author, the journal editor, the peer reviewer and the publisher. A “Publication Ethics” presenting the guidelines adopted by the Journal is presented here.