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01/2021 journal articles

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VITAMIN D AND TELOMERE/TELOMERASE: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

M. Zarei, M. Zarezadeh, F. Hamedi Kalajahi, M.H. Javanbakht

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)2-9

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Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences that together with the associated sheltrin complex protect the ends of chromosomes and maintain genomic stability. Evidences from various organisms suggests that several factors influence telomere length regulation, such as telomere binding proteins, telomere capping proteins, telomerase, and DNA replication enzymes. Recent studies suggest that micronutrients, such as vitamin D, folate and vitamin B12, are involved in telomere biology and cellular aging. In particular, vitamin D is important for a range of vital cellular processes including cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. As a result of the multiple functions of vitamin D it has been speculated that vitamin D might play a role in telomere biology and genomic stability. In this study, our main goal is investigating the relationship between telomerase enzyme and vitamin D. Findings of this study suggest that higher vitamin D concentrations, which are easily modifiable through nutritional supplementation, are associated with longer LTL, which underscores the potentially beneficial effects of this hormone on aging and age-related diseases. Vitamin D may reduce telomere shortening through anti-inflammatory and anti-cell proliferation mechanisms. Significant Low levels of telomerase activity create short telomeres, which in turn signal exit from the cell cycle resulting in cell senescence and apoptosis. In follow-up examination, the patients who remained vitamin D deficient tended to have shorter telomeres than those patients whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were depleted. Increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with SLE may be beneficial in maintaining telomere length and preventing cellular aging. Moreover, anti-telomere antibody levels may be a promising biomarker of SLE status and disease activity.

CITATION:
M. Zarei ; M. Zarezadeh ; F. Hamedi Kalajahi ; M.H. Javanbakht (2020): The Relationship Between Vitamin D and Telomere/Telomerase: a comprehensive review. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.33

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PREVALENCE OF FALL AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG COMMUNITYDWELLING EUROPEAN OLDER ADULTS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

M. Almada, P. Brochado, D. Portela, L. Midão, E. Costa

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)10-16

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im: As a person ages, the risk of fall increases, which affects quality of life and represents a financial burden to health- and social-systems, and a greater morbidity and mortality risk. Fall leads to decreased social contact, anxiety, long-term physical disability, severe dependency and hospitalizations. Currently, few studies address this phenomenon using a uniform methodology; therefore, this study aims to explore the prevalence of fall and associated-variables in older adults across Europe. Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis, we used data from Wave 6 of SHARE. The prevalence of fall was assessed through the answer “falling down” to the question “For the past six months at least, have you been bothered by any of the health conditions on this card?”. Multilevel logistic regression was used, using fall as a dependent variable. Multilevel univariable logistic regression models were made to identify potential associated factors. Results: From the 41,098 participants, 56.3% were female, and the average age was of 70.0 ± 8.9 years. The prevalence of fall was 8.2% (CI 8.0% to 8.4%), being higher in women (10.1% vs. 5.8%) and increasing with age. Age, female gender, being frail or pre-frail, higher scores on the EURO-D scale, polypharmacy and fear of falling were found to be significantly associated with fall. Conclusions: We found that fall is prevalent in the European community-dwelling population, with variations between countries. As a public health priority, identification of the variables associated with fall is important in order to identify/monitor the risk in older groups and develop tailored and cost-effective interventions for fall prevention.

CITATION:
M. Almada ; P. Brochado ; D. Portela ; L. Midão ; E. Costa (2020): Prevalence of fall and associated factors among community-dwelling European older adults: a cross-sectional study. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.44

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DO MALNUTRITION, SARCOPENIA AND FRAILTY OVERLAP IN NURSING-HOME RESIDENTS?

G. Faxén-Irving, Y. Luiking, H. Grönstedt, E. Franzén, Å. Seiger, S. Vikström, A. Wimo, A.-M. Boström, T. Cederholm

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)17-21

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Objectives: To study the prevalence and overlap between malnutrition, sarcopenia and frailty in a selected group of nursing home (NH) residents. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Nursing homes (NH). Participants: 92 residents taking part in an exercise and oral nutritional supplementation study; >75 years old, able to rise from a seated position, body mass index ≤30 kg/m2 and not receiving protein-rich oral nutritional supplements. Measurements: The MNA-SF and Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria were used for screening and diagnosis of malnutrition (moderate or severe), respectively. Sarcopenia risk was assessed by the SARC-F Questionnaire (0-10p; ≥4=increased risk), and for diagnosis the European Working Group of Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) criteria was used. To screen for frailty the FRAIL Questionnaire (0-5p; 1-2p indicating pre-frailty, and >3p indicating frailty), was employed. Results: Average age was 86 years; 62% were women. MNA-SF showed that 30 (33%) people were at risk or malnourished. The GLIM criteria verified malnutrition in 16 (17%) subjects. One third (n=33) was at risk for sarcopenia by SARC-F. Twenty-seven (29%) subjects displayed confirmed sarcopenic according to EWGSOP2. Around 50% (n=47) was assessed as pre-frail or frail. Six people (7%) suffered from all three conditions. Another five (5%) of the residents were simultaneously malnourished and sarcopenic, but not frail, while frailty coexisted with sarcopenia in 10% (n=9) of non-malnourished residents. Twenty-nine (32%) residents were neither malnourished, sarcopenic nor frail. Conclusions: In a group of selected NH residents a majority was either (pre)frail (51%), sarcopenic (29%) or malnourished (17%). There were considerable overlaps between the three conditions.

CITATION:
G. Faxén-Irving ; Y. Luiking ; H. Grönstedt ; E. Franzén ; Å. Seiger ; S. Vikström ; A. Wimo ; A.-M. Boström ; T. Cederholm (2020): Do malnutrition, sarcopenia and frailty overlap in nursing-home residents?. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.45

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ONGOING RESEARCH PROTOCOLS FOR THE PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF NEUROPSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS IN DEMENTIA

M. Canevelli, G. Remoli, M. Toccaceli Blasi, L. Tariciotti, G. Sarli, M. Valletta, F. D’Antonio, N. Vanacore, M. Cesari, G. Bruno

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)22-30

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The implementation of effective interventions for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) is perceived as one of the most pressing research priorities in the field of dementia and one of the main unmet needs from the perspective of affected individuals and their caregivers and relatives. Nevertheless, to date, only a relatively marginal part of dementia research has focused on NPS. This study aimed to describe and discuss the state of the art concerning the identification and development of new pharmacological treatments for NPS in dementia. A review of 320 ongoing phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 protocols registered in the clinicaltrials.gov database was performed. All the trials enrolling patients with dementia were selected. Only studies adopting clinical measures of NPS frequency and/or severity as primary outcome were retained and analyzed. Overall, only a minority of ongoing phase 1, 2, 3 and 4 protocols on dementia (i.e., 9.0%) is primarily targeting NPS. Most of these studies are adopting a placebo-controlled parallel assignment design, testing oral compounds, and targeting specific NPS (mostly agitation and/or aggression). A total of 3,445 subjects with dementia will tentatively be recruited in these trials. The methodologies adopted in these studies, the characteristics of the tested interventions, the eligibility criteria, and the operational definitions of NPS are presented and discussed. The relevance of NPS is not yet matched by an adequate research effort. The current tendency at privileging disease-modifying approaches and other symptoms of dementia and the methodological complexity of studying NPS are still substantially contributing to the gap between research activities and clinical needs.

CITATION:
M. Canevelli ; G. Remoli ; M. Toccaceli Blasi ; L. Tariciotti ; G. Sarli ; M. Valletta ; F. D’Antonio ; N. Vanacore ; M. Cesari ; G. Bruno (2020): Ongoing research protocols for the pharmacological treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.36

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PREDICTION OF COGNITIVE STATUS AND 5-YEAR SURVIVAL RATE FOR ELDERLY WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: A CANADIAN STUDY OF HEALTH AND AGING SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS

S. Pakzad, P. Bourque, N. Fallah

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)31-37

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Background: Given the important association between cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline, and their significant implications on frailty status, the contribution of neurocognitive frailty measure helping with the assessment of patient outcomes is dearly needed. Objectives: The present study examines the prognostic value of the Neurocognitive Frailty Index (NFI) in the elderly with cardiovascular disease. Design: Secondary analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) dataset was used for prediction of 5-year cognitive changes. Setting: Community and institutional sample. Participants: Canadians aged 65 and over [Mean age: 80.4 years (SD=6.9; Range of 66-100)]. Measurement: Neurocognitive Frailty Index (NFI) and Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) scores for cognitive functioning of all subjects at follow-up and mortality rate were measured. Results: The NFI mean score was 9.63 (SD = 6.04) and ranged from 0 to 33. This study demonstrated that the NFI was significantly associated with cognitive changes for subjects with heart disease and this correlation was a stronger predictor than age. Conclusion: The clinical relevance of this study is that our result supports the prognostic utility of the NFI tool in treatment planning for those with modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors in the development of dementia.

CITATION:
S. Pakzad ; P. Bourque ; N. Fallah (2020): Prediction of Cognitive Status and 5-year Survival rate for Elderly with Cardiovascular Diseases: A Canadian Study of Health and Aging Secondary Data Analysis. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.21

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CLINICAL FRAILTY SCALE: TRANSLATION AND CULTURAL ADAPTATION INTO THE BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE

M.K. Rodrigues, I. Nunes Rodrigues, D.J. Vasconcelos Gomes da Silva, J.M. de S. Pinto, M.F. Oliveira

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)38-43

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Background: Frailty is a biological syndrome that causes adverse events in the health of older adults. However, the Clinical Frailty Scale has not yet been culturally adapted and validated into Brazilian Portuguese language. Objectives: Our aim was to translate, reproduce and validate the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) for the Brazilian Portuguese language. Design: An observational cross-sectional study with senior patients was conducted between Jan 2018 and Nov 2018. Setting and Participants: Volunteers aged >60 and living in Brazil. The translation and cultural adaptation of the CFS into the Portuguese language, the principles and good practices were followed. Measurements: To conduct the validation and determine the reproducibility of an inter-observer evaluation, the patients answered the scale questions in Portuguese on two occasions, delivered by two separate examiners and separated by a 10-minute interval, on their first visit; the 36-item Short Form Survey quality-of-life questionnaire (SF-36) was also applied. Seven days later, a second visit was undertaken to perform an intra-observer reproducibility assessment. Results: A total of 66 older individuals were enrolled (72 ± 8 years), the majority of which did not present frailty (63.6%) and reported a low physical limitation level in the SF-36. The CFS showed a significant correlation with the SF-36 quality-of-life questionnaire (r= −0.663; p<0.0001) and no statistical difference was observed between intra-rater (p=0.641) and inter-rater (p=0.350) applications, demonstrating the reproducibility and applicability of the instrument. The standard error estimate (SEE) was evaluated and there were no differences between the CFS and the SF-36 (SEE= 1.13 points). Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese language version of the CFS is a valid, reproducible and reliable instrument for evaluating the impact of frailty on the lives of senior patients.

CITATION:
M.K. Rodrigues ; I. Nunes Rodrigues ; D.J. Vasconcelos Gomes da Silva ; J.M. de S. Pinto ; M.F. Oliveira (2020): Clinical Frailty Scale: translation and cultural adaptation into the Brazilian Portuguese language . The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA).http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.7

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SELF-RATED FRAILTY AND MORTALITY IN OLD MEN: THE MANITOBA FOLLOW-UP STUDY

E. Sachs, P. St. John, A. Swift, R. Tate

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)44-48

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Background: While a multitude of definitions and operationalizations of frailty have been developed, rarely have these considered the perspective of the older adult themselves. This knowledge gap was addressed by examining older adults’ self-rating of frailty. Objectives: To assess the validity of self-rated frailty and to determine whether self-rated frailty relates to mortality. Design: The Manitoba Follow-up Study was initiated in 1948 as a prospective cohort study of 3,983 men. Setting: Community dwelling older adult men. Participants: Survivors of the original cohort (231 men) were sent a quality of life survey in 2015. A response was received from 186 men, including 146 surveys completed by the participant himself and thus were eligible to include (completion rate of 78.4%). Measurements: The quality of life survey is sent out annually to the study participants to ascertain information about mental, physical, and social functioning. In 2015, the Clinical Frailty Scale was adapted and added to the survey as a simple self-rating of frailty. Results: The mean age of the 146 respondents in 2015 was 93.7 years (SD 2.7) Self-ratings of “moderate-severe” frailty, received from 132 men, were associated with worse measures of physical health and functional impairment, thus supporting the significance of self-rated frailty. Adjusted for age, the Hazard Ratio for mortality over the next 3 years was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.5, 7.1) for those who rated themselves as “mildly to severely frail” vs. “very fit or well, with no disease”. Conclusion: The present study has illustrated that self-rated frailty is associated with other measures of health and that self-rated frailty predicts mortality over a three-year period. These findings support the utilization of older adult’s self-ratings of frailty for new avenues of operationalizing frailty.

CITATION:
E. Sachs ; P. St. John ; A. Swift ; R. Tate (2020): Self-rated Frailty and Mortality in Old Men: The Manitoba Follow-up Study. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.14

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THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FRAILTY AND SHORT-TERM OUTCOMES IN AN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT REHABILITATION TRIAL: AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS

A. Takaoka, D. Heels-Ansdell, D.J. Cook, M.E. Kho

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)49-55

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Background: Physical therapy initiated early in an ICU stay may reduce functional deficits in critically ill patients; however, the association of frailty with outcomes in those receiving early in-ICU rehabilitation is unknown. Objective: To estimate the association between frailty and 3 outcomes in patients enrolled in an ICU randomized clinical trial (RCT). Design: Exploratory secondary analyses of the CYCLE pilot RCT (NCT02377830). Setting: 7 Canadian ICUs. Participants: Previously ambulatory critically ill adults. Intervention: Participants were randomized to early in-bed cycling plus routine physiotherapy versus early routine physiotherapy alone. Measurements: Using regression analyses, we modelled the association between pre-hospital Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) scores, Physical Function in ICU Test-scored (PFIT-s), muscle strength, and mortality at hospital discharge, adjusting for illness severity (APACHE II) and the randomized intervention. We explored the influence of imputing mean PFIT-s and strength scores for decedents, and with listwise deletion of decedents in a sensitivity analysis. Results: Of 66 patients, 2 had missing data, 2 had incomplete data, and 21 died by hospital discharge. At hospital discharge for 66 patients, frailty was not associated with PFIT-s (mean difference (MD) [95% CI]=0.20, [-2.08, 2.74]) or muscle strength (1.96, [-12.6, 16.6]). A sensitivity analysis yielded consistent results. Frailty was also not associated with hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.91, [0.28 to 2.93]). Conclusion: We found no association between pre-hospital frailty, physical function, strength, or mortality at hospital discharge in critically ill patients enrolled in an early rehabilitation trial. Larger sample sizes are needed to further explore the association of frailty with these outcomes at hospital discharge.

CITATION:
A. Takaoka ; D. Heels-Ansdell ; D.J. Cook ; M.E. Kho (2020): The Association between Frailty and Short-Term Outcomes in an Intensive Care Unit Rehabilitation Trial: An Exploratory Analysis. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.52

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EXPLORING ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN ORAL HEALTH AND FRAILTY IN COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER PEOPLE

B. Everaars , K. Jerkovi? – ?osi?, N. Bleijenberg, N. J. de Wit, G.J.M.G. van der Heijden

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)56-62

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Background: In frail older people with natural teeth factors like polypharmacy, reduced salivary flow, a decrease of oral self-care, general healthcare issues, and a decrease in dental care utilization contribute to an increased risk for oral complications. On the other hand, oral morbidity may have a negative impact on frailty. Objective: This study explored associations between oral health and two frailty measures in community-dwelling older people. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was carried out in a Primary Healthcare Center (PHC) in The Netherlands. Participants: Of the 5,816 persons registered in the PHC, 1,814 persons were eligible for participation at the start of the study. Measurements: Two frailty measures were used: 1. Being at risk for frailty, using Electronical Medical Record (EMR) data, and: 2. Survey-based frailty using ‘The Groningen Frailty Indicator’ (GFI). For oral health measures, dental-record data (dental care utilization, dental status, and oral health information) and self-reported oral problems were recorded. Univariate regression analyses were applied to determine the association between oral health and frailty, followed by age- and sex-adjusted multivariate logistic regressions. Results: In total 1,202 community-dwelling older people were included in the study, 45% were male and the mean age was 73 years (SD=8). Of all participants, 53% was at risk for frailty (638/1,202), and 19% was frail based on the GFI (222/1,202). A dental emergency visit (Odds Ratio (OR)= 2.0, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.33;3.02 and OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.00;2.49), experiencing oral problems (OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.52;2.81 and OR=2.87, 95% CI= 2.07;3.99), and making dietary adaptations (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.31;5.41 and OR=5.49, 95% CI= 3.01;10.01) were associated with being at risk for frailty and survey-based frailty respectively. Conclusions: A dental emergency visit and self-reported oral health problems are associated with frailty irrespective of the approach to its measurement. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the associations of oral health and frailty in daily practice.

CITATION:
B. Everaars ; K. Jerković – Ćosić ; N. Bleijenberg ; N. J. de Wit ; G.J.M.G. van der Heijden (2020): Exploring associations between oral health and frailty in community-dwelling older people. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.55

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SARCOPENIA AND ADVERSE POST-SURGICAL OUTCOMES IN GERIATRIC PATIENTS: A SCOPING REVIEW

M. Hossain, D. Yu, B. Bikdeli, S. Yu

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)63-69

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Background: Sarcopenia is associated with adverse outcomes in cancer, chemotherapy, solid organ transplants, intensive care and medical patients. It has also been proven to increase perioperative mortality, hospital length of stay and complications in patients of various age groups. However, a limited number of studies have examined the association of post-surgical outcomes and sarcopenia inclusively in patients aged 65 years and older. Objective: This scoping review aimed to examine the relationship between adverse post-surgical outcomes and sarcopenia in patients aged 65 years and older. Methodology: EMBASE and Medline databases were searched for sarcopenia, perioperative period and post-surgical outcomes. The articles were screened based on exclusion and inclusion criteria and were reviewed systematically as per the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Methodology for Scoping Reviews. Results: After duplicates removal and application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight articles were included for this study from a total of nine hundred initially identified articles. All studies defined sarcopenia as low muscle mass but did not include physical function or muscle strength as the parameter of sarcopenia. Low muscle mass was associated with higher mortality in emergency surgeries, reduced long term survival in open elective surgeries, and increased length of hospital stay in endoscopic surgeries. Conclusion: The current review suggests that low muscle mass is associated with higher mortality and various adverse post-surgical outcomes in the elderly. It remains to be determined if applying the definition of sarcopenia as per the international consensus/guidelines will affect the association of adverse post-surgical outcomes and sarcopenia.

CITATION:
M. Hossain ; D. Yu ; B. Bikdeli ; S. Yu (2020): Sarcopenia and adverse post-surgical outcomes in geriatric patients: a scoping review. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.27

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“SAY NINETYNINE”: IT’S NEVER TOO LATE TO RECOVER FROM COVID-19

M. Tosato, F. Varone, A. Ciccullo, R. Calvani, D. Moschese, A. Potenza, M. Siciliano, M. Fantoni

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)70-71

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COVID-19, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, showed higher severity and lethality in male older adults . There are currently no specific treatments. Studies are evaluating the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies against interleukin-6 receptor. Here we present the case of a 98-years old man admitted to our COVID-Hospital with acute respiratory failure. Comprehensive geriatric assessment showed no signs of frailty. First-line therapy with hydroxychloroquine and anticoagulants was not effective. Patient was administered intravenous monoclonal antibodies, and he showed remarkable clinical improvement. This case suggests that age alone should not preclude access to new therapeutic approaches. Comprehensive, multisciplinary, multidomain approaches are needed to develop patient-tailored treatments against COVID-19.

CITATION:
M. Tosato ; F. Varone ; A. Ciccullo ; R. Calvani ; D. Moschese ; A. Potenza ; M. Siciliano ; M. Fantoni (2020): “Say ninetynine”: It’s never too late to recover from COVID-19. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.41

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR: HEALTHY FOR LIFE: AN INNOVATIVE AND COLLABORATIVE APPROACH TO COVID 19 LOCKDOWN IN NEW ZEALAND

J. Parsons, D.L. Waters, E. Binns, V. Burholt, G. Cheung , S. Clare, R. Duncan, C. Fox, R. Gibson, A. Grant, G. Guy, T. Jackson, N. Kerse, R. Logan, K. Peri, C. Petagna, F. Stephens, D. Taylor, R. Teh, C. Wall

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)72

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CITATION:
J. Parsons ; D.L. Waters ; E. Binns ; V. Burholt ; G. Cheung ; S. Clare ; R. Duncan ; C. Fox ; R. Gibson ; A. Grant ; G. Guy ; T. Jackson ; N. Kerse ; R. Logan ; K. Peri ; C. Petagna ; F. Stephens ; D. Taylor ; R. Teh ; C. Wall (2020): Letter to the editor: Healthy for Life: an innovative and collaborative approach to COVID 19 lockdown in New Zealand . The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.49

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR: COVID-19 AND PERSONS WITH DEMENTIA IN ACUTE CARE SETTINGS: HOW TO “EVADE” CHALLENGING BEHAVIORS

H. Tan , A.X. How, X.X. Wang, J.E. Lee, W.S. Lim

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)73-74

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CITATION:
H. Tan ; A.X. How ; X.X. Wang ; J.E. Lee ; W.S. Lim (2020): Letter to the editor: COVID-19 and Persons with Dementia in Acute Care Settings: How to “EVADE” Challenging Behaviors . The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.53

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR: EFFECTS OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON COVID-19 NEGATIVE GERIATRIC PATIENTS WITH HIP FRACTURES

S.M. Lim, M. Tan , Y.L. Sze, L. Au

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)75-76

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CITATION:
S.M. Lim ; M. Tan ; Y.L. Sze ; L. Au (2020): Letter to the editor: Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on COVID-19 Negative Geriatric Patients with Hip Fractures . The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.54

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR: IMPLEMENTING HOME-BASED EXERCISE TECHNOLOGY IN A NURSING HOME: DOES MCI STATUS MATTER?

F. Buckinx, D.L. Waters, M. Aubertin-Leheudre

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)77-78

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CITATION:
F. Buckinx ; D.L. Waters ; M. Aubertin-Leheudre (2020): Letter to the editor: Implementing home-based exercise technology in a nursing home: does MCI status matter?. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.34

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LETTER TO THE EDITOR: ADJUSTING ANTERIOR THIGH MUSCLE MEASUREMENTS USING ULTRASOUND IN SARCOPENIA

A.M. Ata, M. Kara, L. Özçakar

J Frailty Aging 2021;10(1)79-80

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CITATION:
A.M. Ata ; M. Kara ; L. Özçakar (2020): Letter to the editor: Adjusting Anterior Thigh Muscle Measurements Using Ultrasound in Sarcopenia. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.32

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