IMPACT OF FRAILTY ON DIETARY HABITS AMONG COMMUNITYDWELLING OLDER PERSONS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN JAPAN
K. Kinoshita, S. Satake, H. Arai
J Frailty Aging 2022;11(1)109-114
Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in reduced physical activity and social interaction. These restrictions may have affected the food intake habits of frail older people more than non-frail older people.
Objectives: To investigate the association between frailty and change in dietary habit during the pandemic.
Design: Cross-sectional mail survey
Participants: The study questionnaire was mailed to 4,436 older residents of Higashiura, Aich Japan, who were aged ≥75 years and who did not need care as of April 1, 2020. Of these, 2,738 participants provided complete answers to the questionnaires (75–96 years old, 49.3% males).
Measurements: The participants’ frailty status and changes in food consumption during social isolation were assessed. Frailty status was assessed using the five-item frailty screening index (i.e., weight loss, low physical function, low physical activity, cognition, and exhaustion). Any participant who reported an increase or a decrease in ≥1 of the 12 food categories was defined as having change in dietary habit. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of frailty for changes in diet were estimated by adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and living alone. In each of the 12 food categories, the proportion of participants with increased and decreased food intake was compared between the groups.
Results: Among the participants, 470 (17.2%) were frail, and 1,097 (40.1%) experienced a change in dietary habit under social restriction. The adjusted OR (95% CI) of the frail group for a change in dietary habit was 2.01 (1.63–2.47, p<0.001). Participants with decreased consumption of meat, fish, seaweed and mushroom, and fruits and those with increased consumption of eggs, bread, and noodles tended to be frail.
Conclusion: The nutritional intervention for frail older people should be strengthened during the pandemic.
K. Kinoshita ; S. Satake ; H. Arai (2021): Impact of Frailty on Dietary Habits among Community-Dwelling Older Persons during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Japan. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2021.45