MULTI-COMPONENT EXERCISE WITH HIGH-INTENSITY, FREE-WEIGHT, FUNCTIONAL RESISTANCE TRAINING IN PRE-FRAIL FEMALES: A QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL, PILOT STUDY
N.W. Bray, G.J. Jones, K.L. Rush, C.A. Jones, J.M. Jakobi
J Frailty Aging 2020;9(2)111-117
Background: No study has performed an exercise intervention that included high-intensity, free-weight, functional resistance training, and assessed frailty status as an inclusion criteria and outcome measure via original, standardized tools, in pre-frail females. Objectives: Determine if the intervention strategy is not only feasible and safe, but can also improve frailty status, functional task performance, and muscle strength. Design: Pilot, quasi-experimental. Setting: Community. Participants: 20 older-adults with pre-frailty characteristics. Intervention: 12-weeks (3 days/week, 45-60 minutes/session) of multi-component exercise, inclusive of aerobic, resistance, balance and flexibility exercises. The crux of the program was balance and resistance exercises, the latter utilized high-intensity, free-weight, functional resistance training. The control group maintained their usual care. Measurements: 1) Feasibility and safety (dropout, adherence, and adverse event); 2) Frailty (Frailty Phenotype, Clinical Frailty Scale, and gait speed); 3) Functional task performance (grip strength and sit-to-stand time); and 4) Isometric and isotonic strength of the knee extensors and elbow flexors. Results: No participants dropped out of the intervention or experienced an adverse event, and adherence averaged 88.3%. The exercise group became less frail, whereas the control group became more frail. There was a significant within-group improvement in exercise participants gait speed (p ≤ 0.01, +0.24 m/sec), grip strength (p ≤ 0.01, +3.9 kg), and sit-to-stand time (p ≤ 0.01, -5.0 sec). There was a significant within-group improvement in exercise participants knee extension isometric torque (p ≤ 0.05, +7.4 Nm) and isotonic velocity (p = ≤ 0.01, +37.5 ˚/sec). Elbow flexion isotonic velocity significantly declined within the control group (p ≤ 0.01, -20.2 ˚/sec) and demonstrated a significant between-group difference (p ≤ 0.05, 40.73 ˚/sec) post-intervention. Conclusions: The intervention strategy appears to be feasible and safe, and may also improve frailty status, functional task performance, and muscle strength. These results help calculate effect size for a future randomized controlled trial.
N.W. Bray ; G.J. Jones ; K.L. Rush ; C.A. Jones ; J.M. Jakobi (2020): Multi-component exercise with high-intensity, free-weight, functional Resistance Training in pre-frail females: A quasi-experimental, pilot study. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2020.13