RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND SARCOPENIA WITH ORAL FUNCTION DECLINE IN OLDER JAPANESE PATIENTS WHO REGULARLY ATTEND A GENERAL DENTAL CLINIC
Y. Matsushita, Y. Watanabe, R. Shirahase, Y. Yamazaki
J Frailty Aging 2024;13(1)21-30
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sarcopenia with oral function decline in older patients as well as whether a combination of underweight BMI and sarcopenia was associated with decreased oral function in individuals with conservative restorative and prosthetic treatment for masticatory disorders.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study included 290 older Japanese patients who regularly attended a general dental clinic. A detailed examination of oral function, sarcopenia, and BMI according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 criteria was conducted for patients aged 65 years. This study used odds ratios as an epidemiological measure in the cross-sectional survey.
RESULTS: Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that the number of remaining teeth and tongue pressure was associated with both ideal and overweight BMI in individuals with sarcopenia when compared to healthy individuals. The underweight BMI plus sarcopenia group was associated with tongue and lip motor function [ka] sound test, swallowing function, and the presence of oral hypofunction.
DISCUSSION: Our findings indicated that various aspects of oral function were impaired in community-dwelling older adult Japanese patients with sarcopenia and underweight BMI. Notably, among older adults with sarcopenia, both obese and thin patients exist, suggesting that distinct pathophysiological mechanisms influence oral function.
CONCLUSION: The above findings support the hypothesis that the coexistence of sarcopenia and underweight BMI is associated with poor oral function. Regular oral function assessments and weight measurements in general dental practice can aid the prompt identification of sarcopenia and reduced swallowing function and can facilitate early intervention. The presence of sarcopenia and impaired swallowing function should be considered in patients with underweight BMI, reduced [ka] sound, and low tongue pressure following a thorough oral function examination.
Y. Matsushita ; Y. Watanabe ; R. Shirahase ; Y. Yamazaki (2024): Relationship between Body Mass Index and Sarcopenia with Oral Function Decline in Older Japanese Patients Who Regularly Attend a General Dental Clinic. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2024.5