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04/2015 journal articles

A PILOT STUDY OF AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN THE SPHINGOLIPID COMPOSITION OF THE RAT SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM

D.W. Russ, M. Nakazawa, I.M. Boyd

J Frailty Aging 2015;4(4):166-172

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Background: Muscle strength declines more rapidly than muscle size, manifesting as a loss of muscle quality. One putative contributor to this impairment of muscle quality is impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function. Objectives: The principal objective of this study was to characterize the sphingolipid composition of the SR in adult and aging rat muscles. A secondary, exploratory objective was to test for associations between SR sphingolipids and SR function (i.e., Ca2+ release). Design: Using an animal model, the objectives were evaluated in a pre-clinical, cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were collected in an academic research laboratory. Participants: Medial gastrocnemius muscles of adult (n=8; 7-8 months) and aged (n=8; 24-25 months), male F344/BN hybrid rats were processed to extract SR. Measurements: Sphingolipids in the SR were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. Fatty acid concentrations within the major sphingolipid classes were evaluated via Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In a subset of samples, SR Ca2+ release rates were determined using fluorometric methods, and associations with specific (based on results of PCA) fatty acid concentrations were evaluated. Results: Aging SR showed an overall decline in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids. Age-specific differences were observed for hexosylceramide and ceramide-1-phosphate. Within subset of samples with SR Ca2+ release data, a significant negative association between Ca2+ release and C1P18:0 and trends for positive associations with hexCER24:0 and 24:1 were observed. Conclusions: These preliminary, pre-clinical data suggest that changes in SR sphingolipids may play a role in age-related impairment of muscle function. Further work is needed to explore this hypothesis, as SR sphingolipids may prove a fruitful target for interventions, be they physical (i.e., exercise), nutritional or pharmacological.

CITATION:
D.W. Russ ; M. Nakazawa ; I.M. Boyd (2015): A Pilot Study of Age-related Changes in the Sphingolipid Composition of the Rat Sarcoplasmic Reticulum. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2015.73

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UPDATE ON DEFINITIONS OF SARCOPENIA

S. Studenski

J Frailty Aging 2015;4(4):173-174

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CITATION:
S. Studenski (2015): Update on Definitions of Sarcopenia. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2015.60

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THE COMPARATIVE FRAME OF REFERENCE IN SELF-RATED HEALTH QUESTIONS MATTERS WHEN PREDICTING DIFFICULTY WITH ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING

C. Siordia, H.T. Nguyen

J Frailty Aging 2015;4(4):175-180

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Background: Within the assessment of frailty, self-rated health (SRH) questions remain frequently used in survey research attempting to quantify a subjective and global measure of health. Studies have largely ignored the fact that SRH questions may differ in their ability to predict level of difficulty with performing activities of daily living (ADLs)—a variance partially influenced by whether a comparative frame of reference in used in the SRH question. Specific Aim: Investigate if a Comparative-SRH (C-SRH) question with response options ranging on an adjectival scale ranging from 0 to 3; and a Non-Comparative-SRH (NC-SRH) question with an adjectival response scale from range 0 to 5; differ in their ability to predict level of difficulty in performing ADLs after accounting for demographic, psychosocial, and related health factors. Setting & Design: Cross-sectional study of community-dwelling adults (n=275; x age=68; female=54%; x BMI=31) from North Carolina participating in the Hispanic Aging Survey (HAS) were used in multivariable linear regressions to predict a granular measure of level of difficulty performing ADLs. Results: Only C-SRH has a statistically significant relationship with ADLs—where each increase in C-SRH (i.e., more positively self-rated health) is associated with a decrease in ADL level of difficult. Conclusions: Using a comparative frame of reference in SRH questions may have important implications when attempting to understand the statistical relationship between self-rated global health and physical function in the assessment of frailty in older adults.

CITATION:
C. Siordia ; H.T. Nguyen (2015): THE COMPARATIVE FRAME OF REFERENCE IN SELF-RATED HEALTH QUESTIONS MATTERS WHEN PREDICTING DIFFICULTY WITH ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2015.59

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ASSOCIATION OF GRIP AND KNEE EXTENSION STRENGTH WITH WALKING SPEED OF OLDER WOMEN RECEIVING HOME-CARE PHYSICAL THERAPY

R.W. Bohannon

J Frailty Aging 2015;4(4):181-183

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Background: Decreased muscle strength and limited physical performance are key elements of frailty and sarcopenia. The relative value of grip and knee extension strength for explaining walking performance has not been clearly established. Objectives: Compare the ability of grip and knee extension strength to explain gait speed. Design: Retrospective use of cross-sectionally obtained data. Setting: Patients’ homes. Participants: Forty-four ambulatory women patients at least 65 years of age. Measurements: Grip and knee extension forces obtained bilaterally with dynamometers and comfortable gait speed. Results: Knee extension forces were, but grip strength forces were not, correlated significantly with gait speed. Knee extension forces were able, but grip strength forces were not able, to satisfactorily identify patients with gait speeds < .40 m/sec. Conclusions: For women receiving therapy in a home-care setting, physical performance as reflected by gait speed is better explained by knee extension strength than by grip strength.

CITATION:
R.W. Bohannon (2015): Association of Grip and Knee Extension Strength with Walking Speed of Older Women Receiving Home-care Physical Therapy. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2015.74

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOMETRIC STRENGTH OF SIX LOWER LIMB MUSCLE GROUPS AND MOTOR SKILLS AMONG NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

F. Buckinx, J.L. Croisier, J.Y. Reginster, J. Petermans, E. Goffart, O. Bruyère

J Frailty Aging 2015;4(4):184-187

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This research aimed to assess the correlation between isometric muscle strength of the lower limb and motor skills. This is a cross sectional study performed among volunteer nursing home residents included in the SENIOR (Sample of Elderly Nursing home Individuals: an Observational Research) cohort. The present analysis focused on isometric muscle strength of 6 lower limb muscle groups (i.e. knee extensors, knee flexors, hip abductors, hip extensors, ankle flexors and ankle extensors), assessed using a validated hand-held dynamometer (i.e. the MicroFET2 device), and motor skills evaluated using the Tinetti test, the Timed Up and Go test, the Short Physical Performance Battery test (SPPB) and the walking speed. The relationship between all these parameters was tested by means of a multiple correlation, adjusted on age, sex and body mass index. 450 nursing home residents (69.8% of women) with a mean age of 83.1±9.4 years were included in this study. Our results showed a significant inverse correlation between lower limb muscle strength and the time required to perform the TUG test or gait speed, except for ankle flexors and ankle extensors. The relationship between the Tinetti test or the SPPB score, and lower limb muscle strength was significant, except for ankle flexors and ankle extensors. In conclusion, a positive association between lower limb muscle strength of the four main muscle groups and motor skills of the elderly nursing residents was found in this research. Therefore, special attention should be given to these muscle groups during rehabilitation programs.

CITATION:
F. Buckinx ; J.L. Croisier ; J.Y. Reginster ; J. Petermans ; E. Goffart ; O. Bruyère (2015): RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOMETRIC STRENGTH OF SIX LOWER LIMB MUSCLE GROUPS AND MOTOR SKILLS AMONG NURSING HOME RESIDENTS. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2015.70

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OLDER ADULTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN: A CLINICAL POPULATION VULNERABLE TO FRAILTY?

P.C. Coyle, J.M. Sions, T. Velasco, G.E. Hicks

J Frailty Aging 2015;4(4):188-190

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The purpose of this secondary analysis was to explore the differences in proportions of frailty criteria, pre-frailty, and frailty in older adults with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP). Among individuals with CLBP, we also explored whether the proportions of these outcomes differed based on pain intensity status. Using measures to determine weakness, slowness, and exhaustion, we determined that older adults with CLBP had higher proportions of frailty criteria and were more likely to be classified as pre-frail or frail. Older adults with high intensity CLBP had greater proportions of weakness, exhaustion, and pre-frailty/frailty compared to those with low intensity CLBP. These preliminary findings suggest older adults with CLBP may be at a higher risk for frailty than those without pain; pain intensity may be an important factor in assessing risk of frailty in this population.

CITATION:
P.C. Coyle ; J.M. Sions ; T. Velasco ; G.E. Hicks (2015): Older Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Population Vulnerable to Frailty?. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2015.75

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FRAILTY, FOOD INSECURITY, AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV

E. Smit, C. Wanke, K. Dong, A. Grotheer, S. Hansen, S. Skinner, A.M. Tang

J Frailty Aging 2015;4(4):191-197

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Background: Nutritional status and food insecurity are associated with frailty in the general U.S. population, yet little is known about this in the aging population of people living with HIV (PLWH). Objectives: Given the potential importance of nutrition and the amenability to intervention, we examined the association between nutritional status, food insecurity, and frailty in PLWH. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Participants: 50 PLWH, age ≥45 years, recruited from a cohort study examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Measurements: Frailty, duration of HIV, use of antiretroviral therapy, disease history, food insecurity, physical function, and physical activity were assessed by questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records. Blood was drawn for CD4+ cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and lipid levels. Physical measurements included height, weight, and skinfold thickness. Results: The prevalence of frailty was 16% (n=8), 44% were pre-frail (n=22) and 40% were not frail (n=20). The number of reported difficulties with 20 activities of daily living was highest in frail (mean 10.4±3.9 SD), followed by pre-frail (6.5±4.6), and lowest in not frail participants (2.0±2.3). Seven (88%) of the frail PLWH lost weight with an average weight loss of 22.9 pounds; 6 (75%) reported unintentional weight loss, and all 6 of these met the frailty criteria for weight loss of 10 or more pounds. Nine (45%) of the not frail PLWH reported losing weight with an average weight loss of 6.2 pounds; 5 (23%) reported unintentional weight loss of <10 pounds. Frail PLWH were more likely to report being food insecure than not frail PLWH (63% vs. 10%, p=0.02), and tended to have lower energy intake than not frail PLWH. Conclusion: Research is needed on targeted interventions to improve food security and activities of daily living in PLWH for both the prevention and improvement of frailty.

CITATION:
E. Smit ; C. Wanke ; K. Dong ; A. Grotheer ; S. Hansen ; S. Skinner ; A.M. Tang (2015): Frailty, food insecurity, and nutritional status in people living with HIV. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2015.50

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LIVING AND HEALTH CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG ELDERLY

B.F. do Nascimento Jacinto de Souza, L. Marín-Leon

J Frailty Aging 2015;4(4):198-206

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Background: The epidemiological and nutritional transition processes in the last decades underlie the rising trend of obesity in the elderly and is related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases and decreased functional status. Objective: To analyze the association of demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and health-related factors with overweight and obesity in elderly. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Carried out in Campinas-São Paulo, Brazil, in 2011. Participants: 452 non-institutionalized elderly (aged ≥60 years), half were users of a government-run soup kitchen and the other half were neighbors of the same sex. Results: Overweight frequency (BMI ≥25 and <30 kg/m2) was 44.5% and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) was 21.7%. In the multiple multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for sex, age group and economic class, there was greater chance of overweight among those that reported dyslipidemia; those that reported arthritis/ arthrosis/rheumatism and that once or more per week replaced supper by a snack were more likely to be obese. Elderly who did not leave home daily and reported diabetes had higher chance of overweight and obesity. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are associated with worse living and health-related conditions, such as physical inactivity, changes in eating behaviors, and chronic diseases. Public health policies should encourage regular physical activity and healthy eating behaviors, focusing on traditional diet, through nutritional education, in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity and chronic diseases.

CITATION:
B.F. do Nascimento Jacinto de Souza ; L. Marín-Leon (2015): LIVING AND HEALTH CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG ELDERLY. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2015.55

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INNOVATIVE MEDICINES INITIATIVE: THE SPRINTT PROJECT

E. Marzetti, R. Calvani, F. Landi, E. Hoogendijk, B. Fougère, B. Vellas, M. Pahor, R. Bernabei, M. Cesari, on behalf of the SPRINTT consortium

J Frailty Aging 2015;4(4):207-208

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CITATION:
E. Marzetti ; R. Calvani ; F. Landi ; E. Hoogendijk ; B. Fougère ; B. Vellas ; M. Pahor ; R. Bernabei ; M. Cesari ; on behalf of the SPRINTT consortium (2015): INNOVATIVE MEDICINES INITIATIVE: THE SPRINTT PROJECT. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2015.69

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THE GREEN TEA POLYPHENOL EPIGALLOCATECHIN-3-GALLATE (EGCG) ATTENUATES SKELETAL MUSCLE ATROPHY IN A RAT MODEL OF SARCOPENIA

B.M. Meador, K.A. Mirza, M. Tian, M.B. Skelding, L.A. Reaves, N.K. Edens, M.J. Tisdale, S.L. Pereira

J Frailty Aging 2015;4(4):209-215

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Objective: Sarcopenia—the loss of muscle mass and functionality occurring with age—is a pervasive problem with few effective treatments beyond exercise. We examined the ability of the green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), to impact muscle mass and the molecular pathway involved in muscle atrophy in a rat model of sarcopenia. Methods: 20-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 8 weeks with control diet or control plus 200mg/kg body weight of EGCg diet. Results: EGCg-supplemented animals had significantly greater gastrocnemius muscle mass than the aged controls, and showed a trend for increased muscle fiber cross-sectional areas (CSA) (p=0.06). These changes were associated with significantly lower protein expressions of the intramuscular 19S and 20S proteasome subunits and the MuRF1 and MAFbx ubiquitin ligases in the EGCg-treated animals. Proteasome activity as determined by ‘Chymotrypsin-like’ enzyme activity was also significantly reduced by EGCg. Muscle mRNA expression of IL-15 and IGF-1 were significantly increased in the EGCg group vs. the aged controls. In comparison to younger adult animals (6 month), the protein expression of 19S, 20S, MuRF1, MAFbx, and myostatin were increased between approximately 4- and 12-fold in the aged controls, but only up to ~2-fold in the aged EGCg animals. Conclusions: EGCg supplementation was able to preserve muscle in sarcopenic rats, partly through attenuating protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, together with increased expression of anabolic factors.

CITATION:
B.M. Meador ; K.A. Mirza ; M. Tian ; M.B. Skelding ; L.A. Reaves ; N.K. Edens ; M.J. Tisdale ; S.L. Pereira (2015): The green tea polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy in a rat model of sarcopenia. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2015.58

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CHANGES OF BODY COMPOSITION, MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE DUE TO RESISTANCE TRAINING IN OLDER PERSONS WITH SARCOPENIC OBESITY

K. Stoever, A. Heber, S. Eichberg, W. Zijlstra, K. Brixius

J Frailty Aging 2015;4(4):216-222

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Background: At present, it is unclear whether older, obese persons with or without sarcopenia respond differently to training. Furthermore, there are no differentiated recommendations for resistance training for this special target group. Objectives: The objectives are to investigate the changes in the physical parameters of older, obese men caused by training and to reappraise the modalities of resistance training for older persons. Design: Pre-test-post-test design. Participants: The participants were 33 physically inactive and obese older men (≥ 65 years, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), with-out severe diseases. Subjects were divided into two groups: NSAR (no or presarcopenia, n= 15) or SAR (sarcopenia, n= 18). Intervention: The intervention consisted of progressive resistance training, twice a week for 16 weeks with finally 80-85% of maximum strength and three sets with 8-12 repetitions. The training contained six exercises for the major muscle groups. Measurements: Sarcopenia was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), hand-grip strength, skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), and gait speed over a 6-meter walkway. Furthermore, the maximum dynamic strength (1 RM) was assessed. Results: At baseline, the NSAR group had significantly better values in SMI, SPPB score, hand-grip strength, and 1 RM. After training, the results in both groups displayed an increase in 1 RM at the lower limbs (NSAR 18%, SAR 38%) and the upper limbs (NSAR 12%, SAR 14%). Also, the SPPB score (NSAR 11%, SAR 15%) and the 6-m-gait speed (NSAR 5%, SAR 10%) increased. The SAR group was able to increase their right hand-grip strength by 12%, whereas the NSAR group maintained their initial high strength values. SMI did not change in both groups. Conclusions: Both groups show improvements after resistance training with slightly more benefits for men with sarcopenia. Results of this study can be used to define specific training regimens for N(SAR) subjects.

CITATION:
K. Stoever ; A. Heber ; S. Eichberg ; W. Zijlstra ; K. Brixius (2015): Changes of body composition, muscular strength and physical performance due to resistance training in older persons with sarcopenic obesity. The Journal of Frailty and Aging (JFA). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jfa.2015.67

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